Bipolar: References


Bipolar disorder can be very challenging to identify and treat. Often, it is misdiagnosed due to clinicians not understanding the unique symptomology. There is opportunity for improvement in Advanced Practice Nurses knowledge regarding identifying and treating bipolar disorder.


“The prevalence rates in a given year for bipolar disorders are about 2.6% among the U.S population, with 82.9% of these cases classified as “severe in terms of symptomology (National Mental Health (NIMH), 2013) (Kress & Paylo, 2019, Pg. 72). There is much controversy regarding diagnosis of bipolar due to the variation in symptomology. Those that have bipolar often experience dramatic changes in energy and activity levels, mood, and perception. Many of these changes can be so severe that they affect an individual’s ability to function. Since the primary care clinician is often the first line of contact regarding an individual’s health, it is important that clinicians can correctly identify an anxiety disorder and provide effective treatment.


Many cases of bipolar are considered severe and have the potential to be debilitating to those that are affected. Since many individuals are more likely to go their primary care givers when they do have issues that may be linked to bipolar, it’s imperative that NP’s can recognize symptoms and provide treatment.



American Psychiatric Association (2013).  American Psychiatric Association:  Desk Reference to the diagnostic criteria fromDSM-5.  Arlington, VA:  American Psychiatric Publishing.

Stahl, S. M.  (2017).  The prescriber's guide:  Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology (6th ed.).  New York, NY:  Cambridge University Press.

Tusaie, K. R. & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2017). Advanced practice psychiatric nursing:  Integrating psychotherapy,psychopharmacology, and complementary and alternative approaches across the life span.  New York, NY, Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

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