Chronic Pain Management: References


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain. Retrieved from

Change Pain. (n.d). Mechanism-based pain diagnosis: eLearning module. Retrieved from

Krebs, E. E., Gravely, A., Nugent, S., Jensen, A. C., DeRonne, B., Goldsmith, E. S.,…Noorbaloochi, S. (2018). Effect of opioid vs nonopioid medications on pain-related function in patients with chronic back pain or hip or knee osteoarthritis pain. Journal of the American Medical Association, 319(9), 872-882.

Medscape. (n.d). Physiology of Pain Perception. Retrieved from

Perron, R., & Schonwetter, R., S. (2001). Assessment and management of pain in palliative care patients. Cancer Control 8(1), 15-24.

Singh, M, K., Patel, J., & Gallagher, R. M. (2018). Chronic pain syndrome. Medscape. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). Pain: assessment, non-opioid treatment approaches and opioid management. Retrieved from summary/50568/pain-assessment-nonopioid-treatment-approaches-and-opioid-management

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). Chronic pain disorder medical treatment guideline. Retrieved from pain-disorder-medical-treatment-guideline

Whitten, C. E., Donovan, M., Cristobal, K. (2005). Treating chronic pain: New knowledge, more choices. The Permanente Journal, 9(4), 9-18. 

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